Potassium chloride injection

Send the page " " to a friend, relative, colleague or yourself. We do not record any personal information entered above. Potassium is primary intracellular cation Dietary supplement used to maintain potassium balance i. The recommended adequate intake AI of potassium from all sources, including food in healthy individuals is 4.

Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in hepatic impairment are not available; it appears that no dosage adjustments are needed. Dosage should be modified depending on clinical response and degree of renal impairment, but no quantitative recommendations are available.

Monitor serum potassium concentrations and renal function carefully to avoid development of hyperkalemia. Potassium gluconate is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to any potassium formulation.

potassium chloride injection

Potassium gluconate is contraindicated in patients with hyperkalemia since a further increase in serum potassium concentration in such patients can produce cardiac arrest. Due to the risk of developing hyperkalemia, potassium supplementation should be used with caution in patients with adrenal insufficiency untreated Addison's disease ; acute dehydration; systemic metabolic acidosis such as diabetic ketoacidosis; in patients receiving salt substitutes, potassium-sparing diuretics e.

Potassium supplements should also be used cautiously in patients with severe burns because these patients are prone to hyperkalemia secondary to tissue breakdown and renal insufficiency. Serum potassium concentrations and renal function should be monitored closely in patients at risk for hyperkalemia. Because geriatric patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, potassium gluconate should be dosed cautiously based on an assessment of renal is lobster halal shia and therapeutic goals.

Monitor patients with cardiac arrhythmias e. Patients with other cardiac disorders, such as heart failure or AV block, also require close monitoring when receiving potassium supplements. In addition, potassium supplementation is recommended for patients at risk for developing hypokalemia and associated complications. Potassium supplementation is specifically recommended for patients with potential for diuretic-induced potassium loss e.

There are no adequate, well controlled studies with potassium supplements in pregnant women and animal reproduction studies have not been conducted. Therefore, it is unknown whether potassium gluconate can cause fetal harm when administered during pregnancy. Use potassium gluconate during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Although data are limited, potassium supplements appear to be safe and effective to use during breast-feeding to help meet maternal nutritional requirements. Because exogenous potassium becomes part of the body potassium pool, so long as body potassium is not excessive, potassium supplementation should have little or no effect on the concentration in human milk. Potassium is actively transported into cells through a process facilitated by dextrose, insulin, and oxygen.If you are a consumer or patient please visit this version.

This Potassium Chloride Injection is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, highly concentrated, ready-to-use solution of Potassium Chloride, USP in Water for Injection, USP for electrolyte replenishment in a single dose container for intravenous administration.

It contains no antimicrobial agents. This flexible plastic container is fabricated from a specially formulated polyvinylchloride. Higher temperatures lead to greater losses. It is unlikely that these minor losses will lead to clinically significant changes within the expiration period.

The amount of water that can permeate from inside the container into the overwrap is insufficient to affect the solution significantly. Solutions in contact with the plastic container may leach out certain of its chemical components from the plastic in very small amounts; however, biological testing was supportive of the safety of the plastic container materials.

Potassium participates in carbohydrate utilization, protein synthesis, and is critical in the regulation of nerve conduction and muscle contraction, particularly in the heart.

Chloride, the major extracellular anion, closely follows the metabolism of sodium, and changes in the acid-base of the body are reflected by changes in the chloride concentration. The kidney does not conserve potassium well so that during fasting, or in patients on a potassium-free diet, potassium loss from the body continues resulting in potassium depletion.

A deficiency of either potassium or chloride will lead to a deficit of the other. Potassium Chloride Injection is indicated in the treatment of potassium deficiency states when oral replacement is not feasible. When using these products, these patients should be on continuous cardiac monitoring and frequent testing for serum potassium concentration and acid-base balance. Potassium Chloride Injection is contraindicated in diseases where high potassium levels may be encountered, and in patients with hyperkalemia, renal failure and in conditions in which potassium retention is present.

In patients with renal insufficiency, administration of potassium chloride may cause potassium intoxication and life-threatening hyperkalemia. Administer intravenously only with a calibrated infusion device at a slow, controlled rate. Because pain associated with peripheral infusion of Potassium Chloride solution has been reported, whenever possible administration via a central route is recommended for thorough dilution by the blood stream and avoidance of extravasation.

The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentration. The risk of solute overload causing congested states with peripheral and pulmonary edema is directly proportional to the electrolyte concentration. Serum potassium levels are not necessarily indicative of tissue potassium levels. Solutions containing potassium should be used with caution in the presence of cardiac or renal disease.

Clinical evaluation and periodic laboratory determinations are necessary to monitor changes in fluid balance, electrolyte concentrations, and acid-base balance during prolonged parenteral therapy or whenever the condition of the patient warrants such evaluation. Significant deviations from normal concentrations may require the use of additional electrolyte supplements, or the use of electrolyte-free dextrose solutions to which individualized electrolyte supplements may be added.

Pregnancy Category C.

Potassium Chloride Elixir

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with potassium chloride. It is also not known whether potassium chloride can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Potassium chloride should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed. These products should not be used in pediatric patients at this time. Do not administer unless solution is clear and seal is intact.

Potassium intoxication with mild or severe hyperkalemia has been reported. The signs and symptoms of intoxication include paresthesia of the extremities, areflexia, muscular or respiratory paralysis, mental confusion, weakness, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, heart block, electrographic abnormalities and cardiac arrest.Potassium chloridealso known as potassium saltis used as a medication to treat and prevent low blood potassium.

Side effects may include heart problems if given too quickly by injection into a vein. Potassium chloride came into large scale commercial use as a fertilizer in and has been used medically since the s. Potassium chloride is used in the treatment of hypokalemia as an electrolyte replenisher.

Some cardiac surgery procedures cannot be carried out on the beating heart. For these procedures, the surgical team will bypass the heart with a heart-lung machine and inject potassium chloride into the heart muscle to stop the heartbeat. Side effects can include gastrointestinal discomfort, including nausea and vomitingdiarrheaand bleeding of the digestive tract. Overdoses cause hyperkalemiawhich can lead to paresthesiacardiac conduction blocks, fibrillationarrhythmiasand sclerosis.

Slow-K is a s development where the medicine is formulated to enter the bloodstream at delayed intervals. It was first only prescribed to British military forces to balance their diets while serving in Korea.

Potassium Chloride

Potassium chloride is used in lethal injection as the third of a three-drug combination. KCl is also sometimes used in fetal intracardiac injections in second- and third-trimester induced abortions.

Cardiac arrest induced by potassium has been used in political assassinations in Iran, by injection or by inserting a potassium suppository into the victim's rectum. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. US : C Risk not ruled out. Interactive image.

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WHO Model Formulary World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 18 January Retrieved 14 January British Medical Association. Archived from the original on 18 September Bureau of National Affairs, Incorporated. World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list Geneva: World Health Organization.

Retrieved 11 April Retrieved on The Times.

potassium chloride injection

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Namespaces Article Talk.Medically reviewed by Drugs. Last updated on Jun 1, This Potassium Chloride Injection, is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, highly concentrated, ready-to-use, solution of Potassium Chloride, USP in Water for Injection, USP for electrolyte replenishment in a single dose container for intravenous administration.

It contains no antimicrobial agents. Higher temperatures lead to greater losses. It is unlikely that these minor losses will lead to clinically significant changes within the expiration period.

The amount of water that can permeate from inside the container into the overwrap is insufficient to affect the solution significantly. Solutions in contact with the plastic container may leach out certain of its chemical components from the plastic in very small amounts; however, biological testing was supportive of the safety of the plastic container materials.

Potassium participates in carbohydrate utilization, protein synthesis, and is critical in the regulation of nerve conduction and muscle contraction, particularly in the heart. Chloride, the major extracellular anion, closely follows the metabolism of sodium, and changes in the acid-base of the body are reflected by changes in the chloride concentration. The kidney does not conserve potassium well so that during fasting, or in patients on a potassium-free diet, potassium loss from the body continues resulting in potassium depletion.

A deficiency of either potassium or chloride will lead to a deficit of the other. Potassium Chloride Injection is indicated in the treatment of potassium deficiency states when oral replacement is not feasible.

potassium chloride injection

When using these products, these patients should be on continuous cardiac monitoring and frequent testing for serum potassium concentration and acid-base balance.

If used in high-risk patients, especially close monitoring and careful dose selection and adjustment is required. Administration of concentrated potassium solutions can cause cardiac conduction disorders including complete heart block and other cardiac arrhythmias at any time during infusion.

Continuous cardiac monitoring is performed to aid in the detection of cardiac arrhythmias due to a sudden increase in serum potassium concentration e. Frequently, mild or moderate hyperkalemia is asymptomatic and may be manifested only by increased serum potassium concentrations and, possibly, characteristic EKG changes. However, fatal arrhythmias can develop at any time during hyperkalemia. When infusing concentrated potassium solutions, including Potassium Chloride Injection, care must be taken to prevent paravenous administration or extravasation because such solutions may be associated with tissue damage, which may be severe and include vascular, nerve, and tendon damage, leading to surgical intervention, including amputation.

Secondary complications including pulmonary embolism from thrombophlebitis have been reported as a consequence of tissue damage from potassium chloride.

Administer intravenously only with a calibrated infusion device at a slow, controlled rate.Baxter has potassium chloride injection available. Fresenius Kabi has potassium chloride injection available. Pfizer has potassium chloride injection available. ICU Medical has potassium chloride injection available. During this shortage, use oral therapy whenever possible to reserve remaining IV supplies. Compounding potassium-containing products poses significant safety risks.

Consider oral therapy for patients with enteral or oral access and patients with potassium concentrations higher than 2. This product is distributed by La Jolla Pharmaceuticals. Users of this information are advised that decisions regarding the use of drugs and drug therapies are complex medical decisions and that in using this information, each user must exercise his or her own independent professional judgment.

Neither ASHP nor the University of Utah assumes any liability for persons administering or receiving drugs or other medical care in reliance upon this information, or otherwise in connection with this Bulletin. Any application of this information for any purpose shall be limited to personal, non-commercial use. Subscribe to AHFS Clinical Drug Information to get direct access to integrated drug shortages content, plus comprehensive and actionable drug information.

View Related Links. Reason for the Shortage Baxter has potassium chloride injection available. Estimated Resupply Dates All marketed presentations are available. Safety During this shortage, use oral therapy whenever possible to reserve remaining IV supplies. Midyear continuing education policy positions and guidelines residency for presenters get involved in a meeting drug shortages.Lethal injection of potassium chloride KCl can be used as a method of either suicide or homicide.

As biological tests are still inadequate to differentiate endogenous from exogenous potassium, at the scene of death the cause can only be suspected. We wished to determine the usefulness of conventional pathological examination in this context and carried out a study in four fetuses after medical termination of pregnancy for serious disease. Pregnancy was terminated by KCl injection in two cases and by injection of lidocaine and sufentanil in the other two cases.

In each of the two fetuses in which KCl injection was performed, macroscopic examination showed whitish deposits on the tissues and histological examination showed clumps of lanceolate crystals in the internal organs.

In the two fetuses which received lidocaine and sufentanil injection, no deposits were visible on macroscopic examination and no crystals were seen on histological examination. These findings suggest that pathological study may have useful applications in forensic medicine when death by potassium injection is suspected.

Abstract Lethal injection of potassium chloride KCl can be used as a method of either suicide or homicide. Substances Potassium Chloride Lidocaine Sufentanil.Medically reviewed by Sanjai Sinha, MD. Last updated on Jul 1, Potassium is a mineral that is found in many foods and is needed for several functions of your body, especially the beating of your heart.

Potassium chloride is used to prevent or to treat low blood levels of potassium hypokalemia. Potassium levels can be low as a result of a disease or from taking certain medicines, or after a prolonged illness with diarrhea or vomiting. You should not use potassium chloride if you have high levels of potassium in your blood hyperkalemiaor if you also take a "potassium-sparing" diuretic.

To be sure potassium chloride is helping your condition, your blood may need to be tested often. Your heart rate may also be checked using an electrocardiograph or ECG sometimes called an EKG to measure electrical activity of the heart. This test will help your doctor determine how long to treat you with potassium.

Do not miss any scheduled appointments. Serious side effects of potassium include uneven heartbeat, muscle weakness or limp feeling, severe stomach pain, and numbness or tingling in your hands, feet, or mouth. Do not stop taking this medicine without first talking to your doctor. If you stop taking this medicine suddenly, your condition may become worse. Do not crush, chew, break, or suck on an extended-release tablet or capsule.

Swallow the pill whole. Breaking or crushing the pill may cause too much of the drug to be released at one time. Sucking on a tablet can irritate your mouth or throat. Take potassium chloride with food or just after a meal. It is not known whether this medicine will harm an unborn baby. Your dose needs may be different during pregnancy. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Take potassium chloride exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Follow all directions on your prescription label and read all medication guides or instruction sheets.

Your doctor may occasionally change your dose.


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